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Advanced Composite Materials for Automotive Applications: Structural Integrity and Crashworthiness - ISBN 9781118423868

Advanced Composite Materials for Automotive Applications: Structural Integrity and Crashworthiness

ISBN 9781118423868

Autor: Ahmed Elmarakbi

Wydawca: Wiley

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Dostępność: Dostawa 10-20 dni

Cena: 474,60 zł


ISBN13:      

9781118423868

ISBN10:      

1118423860

Autor:      

Ahmed Elmarakbi

Oprawa:      

Hardback

Rok Wydania:      

2013-12-06

Ilość stron:      

470

Wymiary:      

244x176

Tematy:      

TG


The automotive industry faces many challenges, including increased global competition, the need for higher–performance vehicles, a reduction in costs and tighter environmental and safety requirements. The materials used in automotive engineering play key roles in overcoming these issues: ultimately lighter materials mean lighter vehicles and lower emissions. Composites are being used increasingly in the automotive industry due to their strength, quality and light weight. Advanced Composite Materials for Automotive Applications: Structural Integrity and Crashworthiness provides a comprehensive explanation of how advanced composite materials, including FRPs, reinforced thermoplastics, carbon–based composites and many others, are designed, processed and utilized in vehicles. It includes technical explanations of composite materials in vehicle design and analysis and covers all phases of composite design, modelling, testing and failure analysis. It also sheds light on the performance of existing materials including carbon composites and future developments in automotive material technology which work towards reducing the weight of the vehicle structure. Key features: Chapters written by world–renowned authors and experts in their own fields Includes detailed case studies and examples covering all aspects of composite materials and their application in the automotive industries Unique topic integration between the impact, crash, failure, damage, analysis and modelling of composites Presents the state of the art in composite materials and their application in the automotive industry Integrates theory and practice in the fields of composite materials and automotive engineering Considers energy efficiency and environmental implications Advanced Composite Materials for Automotive Applications: Structural Integrity and Crashworthiness is a comprehensive reference for those working with composite materials in both academia and industry, and is also a useful source of information for those considering using composites in automotive applications in the future.

About the Editor xv List of Contributors xvii Series Preface xxi Preface xxiii Part One FUNDAMENTAL BACKGROUND 1 Overview of Composite Materials and their Automotive Applications 3 Ali Hallal, Ahmed Elmarakbi, Ali Shaito and Hicham El–Hage 1.1 Introduction 3 1.2 Polymer Composite Materials 5 1.3 Application of Composite Materials in the Automotive Industry 12 1.4 Green Composites for Automotive Applications 17 1.5 Modelling the Mechanical Behaviour of Composite Materials 19 1.6 Discussion 22 1.7 Conclusion 23 References 24 2 High–Volume Thermoplastic Composite Technology for Automotive Structures 29 Neil Reynolds and Arun Balan Ramamohan 2.1 Introduction – Opportunities for Thermoplastic Composites 29 2.2 Recent Developments in Automotive TPCs 31 2.3 Case Study: Rapid Stamp–Formed Thermoplastic Composites 34 2.4 Conclusion 48 Acknowledgements 49 References 49 3 Development of Low–Cost Carbon Fibre for Automotive Applications 51 Alan Wheatley, David Warren, and Sujit Das 3.1 Introduction 51 3.2 Research Drivers: Energy Efficiency 52 3.3 Lightweight Automotive Materials 53 3.4 Barriers to Carbon Fibre Adoption in the Automotive Industry 55 3.5 Global Production and the Market for Carbon Fibre 58 3.6 Low–Cost Carbon Fibre Programme 60 3.7 International Cooperation 72 Acknowledgements 72 References 72 Part Two IMPACT AND CRASH ANALYSIS 4 Mechanical Properties of Advanced Pore Morphology Foam Composites 77 Matej Vesenjak, Lovre Krstulovi´c–Opara and Zoran Ren 4.1 Introduction 77 4.2 Cellular Materials 78 4.3 Advanced Pore Morphology Foam 83 4.4 Mechanical Properties of Single APM Foam Elements 84 4.5 Behaviour of Composite APM Foam 89 4.6 Conclusion 96 Acknowledgements 96 References 96 5 Automotive Composite Structures for Crashworthiness 99 Dirk H.–J.A. Lukaszewicz 5.1 Introduction 99 5.2 Traffic Safety 99 5.3 Alternative Vehicles 101 5.4 Selective Overview of Worldwide Crash Tests 103 5.5 Structural Crash Management 106 5.6 Composite Materials for Crash Applications 110 5.7 Energy Absorption of Composite Profiles 115 5.8 Conclusion 124 Acknowledgements 125 References 125 6 Crashworthiness Analysis of Composite and Thermoplastic Foam Structure for Automotive Bumper Subsystem 129 Ermias Koricho, Giovanni Belingardi, Alem Tekalign, Davide Roncato and Brunetto Martorana 6.1 Introduction 129 6.2 Materials for Automotive Applications 132 6.3 Composite and Thermoplastic Materials 133 6.4 Numerical Modelling of Fiat 500 Frontal Transverse Beam 137 6.5 Standards for Low–Speed Frontal Impact 141 6.6 Bumper Beam Thickness Determination 141 6.7 Results and Discussion 142 6.8 Conclusion 145 References 146 7 Hybrid Structures Consisting of Sheet Metal and Fibre Reinforced Plastics for Structural Automotive Applications 149 Christian Lauter, Thomas Tr¨oster and Corin Reuter 7.1 Introduction and Motivation 149 7.2 Conventional Method for the Development of Composite Structures 150 7.3 Approaches to Automotive Lightweight Construction 151 7.4 Requirements for Automotive Structures 154 7.5 Simulation 158 7.6 Manufacturing 160 7.7 Testing 165 7.8 New Methodology for the Product Engineering of Hybrid Lightweight Structures 170 7.9 Conclusion 172 References 172 8 Nonlinear Strain Rate Dependent Micro–Mechanical Composite Material Model for Crashworthiness Simulation 175 Ala Tabiei 8.1 Introduction 175 8.2 Micro–Mechanical Formulation 175 8.3 Strain Rate Dependent Effects 188 8.4 Numerical Results 197 8.5 Conclusion 203 References 203 9 Design Solutions to Improve CFRP Crash–Box Impact Efficiency for Racing Applications 205 Simonetta Boria 9.1 Introduction 205 9.2 Composite Structures for Crashworthy Applications 207 9.3 Geometrical and Material Characterisation of the Impact Attenuator 214 9.4 Experimental Test 216 9.5 Finite Element Analysis and LS–DYNA 219 9.6 Comparison between Numerical and Experimental Analysis 220 9.7 Investigation of the Optimal Solution 221 9.8 Conclusion 224 References 224 Part Three DAMAGE AND FAILURE 10 Fracture and Failure Mechanisms for Different Loading Modes in Unidirectional Carbon Fibre/Epoxy Composites 229 Victoria Mollon, Jorge Bonhomme, Jaime Vina and Antonio Arguelles 10.1 Introduction 229 10.2 Delamination Failure 230 10.3 Objectives 232 10.4 Experimental Programme 233 10.5 Numerical Simulations 240 10.6 Fractography 244 10.7 Results and Discussion 244 10.8 Conclusion 253 References 253 11 Numerical Simulation of Damages in FRP Laminated Structures under Transverse Quasi–Static or Low–Velocity Impact Loads 257 Ning Hu, Ahmed Elmarakbi, Alamusi, Yaolu Liu, Hisao Fukunaga, Satoshi Atobe and Tomonori Watanabe 11.1 Introduction 257 11.2 Theory 261 11.3 Techniques for Overcoming Numerical Instability in Simulation of Delamination Propagation 267 11.4 Numerical Examples 275 11.5 Conclusion 291 References 291 12 Building Delamination Fracture Envelope under Mode I/Mode II Loading for FRP Composite Materials 293 Othman Al–Khudairi, Homayoun Hadavinia, Eoin Lewis, Barnaby Osborne and Lee S. Bryars 12.1 Introduction 293 12.2 Experimental Studies 294 12.3 Mode I Delamination Testing: Double Cantilever Bending Test Analysis and Results 296 12.4 Mode II Delamination Testing: End Notched Flexure Test Analysis and Results 297 12.5 Mixed Mode I/II Delamination Testing: Mixed–Mode Bending Test Analysis and Results 302 12.6 Fracture Failure Envelope 306 12.7 Conclusion 308 Nomenclature 309 References 309 Part Four CASE STUDIES AND DESIGNS 13 Metal Matrix Composites for Automotive Applications 313 Anthony Macke, Benjamin F. Schultz, Pradeep K. Rohatgi and Nikhil Gupta 13.1 Automotive Technologies 313 13.2 Reinforcements 321 13.3 Automotive Applications 328 13.4 Conclusion 342 Acknowledgements 343 References 343 14 Development of a Composite Wheel with Integrated Hub Motor and Requirements on Safety Components in Composite 345 Nicole Schweizer and Andreas B¨uter 14.1 Introduction 345 14.2 Wheels Made from FRPs 349 14.3 Development of a Composite Wheel with Integrated Electric Motor 358 14.4 Multifunctional Design – Requirements regarding Structural Durability and System Reliability 364 14.5 Conclusion 369 References 370 15 Composite Materials in Automotive Body Panels, Concerning Noise and Vibration 371 Peyman Honarmandi 15.1 Introduction 371 15.2 Composite Materials in Automobile Bodies 371 15.3 Multilayer Composite Materials in Noise and Vibration Treatment 372 15.4 Case Studies 373 15.5 Conclusion 386 References 387 16 Composite Materials for Automotive Braking Systems 389 David C. Barton 16.1 Introduction 389 16.2 Materials Requirements for Brake Rotors 390 16.3 Cast Iron Rotors 392 16.4 Carbon Composite Rotors 393 16.5 Light Alloy Composite Rotors 395 16.6 Evaluation of Composite Disc Materials 395 16.7 Surface Engineering of Light Alloy Brake Discs 398 16.8 Friction Material 400 16.9 Conclusion 402 References 403 17 Low–Cost Carbon Fibre: Applications, Performance and Cost Models 405 Alan Wheatley, David Warren and Sujit Das 17.1 Current and Proposed Carbon Fibre Applications 405 17.2 Carbon Fibre Polymer Composites: Cost Benefits and Obstacles for Automobiles 407 17.3 Performance Modelling 414 17.4 Cost Modelling 427 17.5 Conclusion 433 Acknowledgements 433 References 433 Index 435

Editor Ahmed Elmarakbi – University of Sunderland, UK

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